A transformer is a device that is used to transfer electrical energy from one circuit to another through electromagnetic induction. It is commonly used in power transmission and distribution systems to increase or decrease the voltage of electrical power.
A transformer consists of two coils of wire wound around a magnetic core. The coil that is connected to the input voltage source is called the primary coil, while the coil that is connected to the output circuit is called the secondary coil. When an AC voltage is applied to the primary coil, it creates a magnetic field around the coil that induces a voltage in the secondary coil. The voltage induced in the secondary coil is determined by the ratio of the number of turns in the primary coil to the number of turns in the secondary coil.
Transformers can be used to either step up or step down the voltage of an electrical signal. A step-up transformer increases the voltage of the input signal, while a step-down transformer decreases the voltage. This makes transformers an important component in power distribution systems, allowing power to be transmitted efficiently over long distances at high voltages, and then stepped down to lower voltages for use in homes and businesses.
Transformers can be found in a wide range of electrical and electronic devices, including power supplies, audio equipment, and electronic ballasts for fluorescent lighting. They are also used in electrical motors to control the voltage and current that is applied to the motor windings.
Overall, transformers are an important and versatile component in electrical and electronic systems, allowing for efficient and safe transfer of electrical power.